However, when using Hyperdev the encoded URL in the path is not preserved.
Instead it results in a redirect where the URL in the path is missing one of the double slashes following the protocol (https):
301 Location: /new/https:/facebook.com
Are there any workarounds or a fix for this planned?
That looks like exactly the same issue!
However, the resolution in that case (looking at the linked example) was to move the URL to a query parameter.
This indicates that there is an issue with Hyperdev not preserving the URL encoded slashes in the request when doing a redirect. Instead it looks like it just decodes the URL and adds that as path in the redirect which will break since URLs are not safe to include in the path of an URL (see the example in OP).